Species:  Austrofundulus limnaeus
Description: Schultz, 1949
Etymology:  
References: Dr Lothar Seegers, Killifishes of the World: New World Killis, Aqualog Verlag p87-88

Dr Roger Brousseau, A Hobbyist Guide To South American Annual Killifish, p40-42

Jason E. Podrabsky, Husbandry of the Annual Killifish Austrofundulus limnaeus with Special Emphasis on the Collection and Rearing of Embryos, Environmental Biology of Fishes, Volume 54, Issue 4, April 1999, Pages 421 - 431

Podrabsky JE, Hand SC., The bioenergetics of embryonic diapause in an annual killifish, austrofundulus limnaeus, J Exp Biol. 1999 Oct;202 (Pt 19):2567-80.

Jason E. Podrabsky and George N. Somero, Changes in gene expression associated with acclimation to constant temperatures and fluctuating daily temperatures in an annual killifish Austrofundulus limnaeus, Journal of Experimental Biology 207, 2237-2254 (2004)

Jason E. Podrabsky, Tomas Hrbek, Steven C. Hand, Physical and chemical characteristics of ephemeral pond habitats in the Maracaibo basin and Llanos region of Venezuela, Hydrobiologia, Volume 362, Issue 1-3, 1997, Pages 67 - 77

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Abstract:  
Synonyms:
  • "Schultz's Spotfin Killie / Venezuelan Killie / Myers's Killifish"
  • Austrofundulus myersi (Dahl)
  • Austrofundulus stagnalis Schultz)
  • Austrofundulus transilis limnaeus
  • Rachovia limnaeus
  • Type Locality: Quisiro population: 15 km west of San Felix, State of Falcón, Venezuela
    Distribution: Ranging along the Caribbean coastal plains of Columbia, Venezuela and Guyana.
    Biotope: Found in the same locations as Austrofundulus limnaeus are many Rachovia hummelincki, a few Rachovia brevis and some tetras. Foods including small fish, micro-crustaceans, beetles, bloodworms and also in small numbers: ants, snails, mosquito larvae and caddis fly larvae. Guajiro population: In Venezuela, a few kilometers north of Puerto Rosa, found in a hog wallow beside the road: red-tailed limnaeus and some Rachovia pyropunctata. Also in borrow pits called "prestamos", excavated for road fill. Water temperature to 30C, soft mud at the bottom. Most sites with aquatic vegetation even if only grasses around the edge. Tucacas population: Do well at a temperature of 28C but also collected in cooler water at 24C. Found in tea-coloured water. A closely monitored daily temperature record was recorded for 5 consecutive days at a typical ephemeral pond inhabited by Austrofundulus limnaeus (Podrabsky et al., 1998). This showed daily temperature fluctuations between 25–37°C.
    Size: Males: 5 - 9.5 cm, females: 4 - 7 cm
    Characteristics:  
    Variations: A wide range of variations encompassing Austrofundulus myersi.

    Divided by Jim Thomerson and Don Taphorn into three inter-graded populations:

    - Guajiro
    A wide blood-red and a black band on the tails of the males.

    - Quisiro
    Characterised by big males.

    - Tucacas (originally identified as Austrofundulus transilis)
    The darkest, smallest population. Crimson band on tail not as wide as in Guajiro specimens.
    History:
  • Description (Schultz, 1949)
  • Austrofundulus transilis limnaeus Terceira (1974):70
  • Austrofundulus myersi Terceira (1974):70
  • Lazara (1984):51
  • Baensch & Riehl (1985):630
  • Axelrod et al. (1989):276
  • Sterba (1990):484
  • Wildekamp (1995):130
  • Seegers (2000):87
  • Gallery:  
    Populations:
  • "Sanara" RDB 92/17
  • Breeding: A study by Jason E. Podrabsky on rearing Austrofundulus limnaeus embryos reported that females produce an average of 29 eggs during a two to four hour spawning. He also noted that egg quality (fertilization/survival rates) and egg production are affected by the number of days between spawnings. The fertilization rate and embryo survival decreases with increased time between spawnings (tested from 2 to 8 days). The number of viable embryos produced per female remains relatively constant for a given spawning interval. He also noted that good fertilization rates may be maintained by replacing aged males (1.5 years old) with younger males.

    A study of embryonic diapause reported that the release of resting embryos from diapause II is facilitated by increasing the length of the daylight period.
    Incubation: [21 - 24ºC] 12 - 14 weeks
    [24 - 27ºC] 6 - 8 weeks
    Egg Diameter: 1.5 - 2.5 mm
    Remarks: Experiments showed that acclimatising fish to constant conditions in an aquarium adversely effect their ability to later cope with thermal stress. Potential this means that subjecting Austrofundulus limnaeus to a daily temperature cycle can enable them to better survive spells of seasonal low or high temperatures.
    Contributors: David Baker
    Links: FishBase o Google o Google Image Search
    Changes in gene expression associated with acclimation to constant temperatures and fluctuating daily temperatures in an annual killifish Austrofundulus limnaeus

    Husbandry of the Annual Killifish Austrofundulus limnaeus…

    Physical and chemical characteristics of ephemeral pond habitats in the Maracaibo basin and Llanos region of Venezuela

    The bioenergetics of embryonic diapause in an annual killifish, austrofundulus limnaeus

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